The trading on stock exchanges in India used to take place through open outcry without use of information technology for immediate matching or recording of trades. This was time consuming and inefficient. This imposed limits on trading volumes and efficiency. In order to provide efficiency, liquidity and transparency, NSE introduced a nation-wide on-line fully automated screen based trading system where a member can punch into the computer quantities of securities and the prices at which he likes to transact and the transaction is executed as soon as it finds a matching sale or buy order from a counter party. Screen based electronic system electronically matches orders on a strict price/time priority and hence cuts down on time, cost and risk of error, as well as on fraud resulting in improved operational efficiency. It allows faster incorporation of price sensitive information into prevailing prices, thus increasing the informational efficiency of markets. It enables market participants, irrespective of their geographical locations, to trade with one another simultaneous, improving the depth and liquidity of the market. It provides full anonymity by accepting orders, big or small, from members without revealing their identity, thus providing equal access to everybody. It also provides a perfect audit trial, which helps to resolve disputes by logging in the trade execution process entirety. The sucked liquidity from other exchanges and in the very first year of its operation, NSE became the leading stock exchange in the country, impacting the fortunes of other exchanges and forcing them to adopt SBTS also. Today India can boast that almost 100% trading take place through electronic order matching.
Now dematerialisation of shares is introduced “a new concept” which converts paper based physical trading into electronic trading. It is a safe and convenient way to hold securities. Screen based trading system helps in faster transfer of securities and no stamp duty is required on transfer of securities. The trading system operates on a strict price time priority. All orders received on the system are sorted with the best priced order getting the first priority for matching i.e. the best buy order match with the best sell order. Orders are matched automatically by the computer keeping the system transparent, objective and fair. The trading system provides tremendous flexibility to the users in terms of kinds of orders that can be placed on the system. The trading system also provides market information online.
In order to promote dematerialization of securities, NSE joined hands with leading financial institutions to establish the national securities depository Ltd. (NSDL), the first depository in the country, with the objective of enhancing the efficiency in settlement systems as also to reduce the menace of fake/forged and stolen securities. This has ushered in an era of dematerialised trading and settlement. SEBI has made dematerialised settlement mandatory in an ever –increasing number of securities in a phased manner, thus bringing about an increase in the proportion of shares delivered in dematerialised form. There is an increasing preference to settle trades, particularly in high value securities, in demat form. Such high level of demat settlement reassures success of rolling settlement.
WHAT IS DEMAT
In India, a demat account, the abbreviation for dematerialised account, is a type of banking account which dematerializes paper-based physical stock shares. Conversion of Securities from Physical (Paper) Mode into Electronic Mode is Called Dematerialisation. The Client opens Demat Account with any DP. Upon Demat, the Certificates are destroyed and credit entry of exactly equal number of Securities is created in Depository in Electronic mode. The B.O. account of holder is credited and the securities loose their identities. The dematerialised account is used to avoid holding physical shares: the shares are bought and sold through a stock broker.
This account is popular in India. The market regulator, securities and exchange board of India (SEBI) mandates a demat account for share trading above 500 shares. As of April 2006, it became mandatory that any person holding a demat account should possess a permanent account number (PAN), and the deadline for submission of PAN details to the depository lapsed on January 2007.
Dematerialisation is the process by which physical certificates of an investor are converted to an equivalent number of securities in electronic form and credited in the investor’s account with its DP. In order to dematerialize certificates; an investor will have to first open an account with a DP and then request for the dematerialisation of certificates by filling up a dematerialisation request form [DRF], which is available with the DP and submitting the same along with the physical certificates. The investor has to ensure that before the certificates are handed over to the DP for demat, they are defaced by marking “Surrendered for Dematerialisation” on the face of the certificates.